Firefighting foam used by the Air Force has permanently contaminated water in parts of the city.

Since the 2016 revelation that groundwater in Fountain Valley, which provided drinking water for Security-Widefield and Fountain, was contaminated with toxic per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, government agencies, residents and community activists have been struggling to come to terms with what is arguably one of the largest ecological contaminations in Colorado’s history. 

On Aug. 4, Chris Reh, associate director of the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, led a virtual information session for residents of Security-Widefield and Fountain about its ongoing PFAS exposure assessment. The assessment will randomly select participants and test blood, urine and tap water for levels of PFAS chemicals. According to Reh, the assessment will identify how people might be exposed to chemicals, calculate the extent of exposure and determine if there is a health threat.

The agency’s exposure assessment is the first part of a process that will continue in 2021 with the Pease Study, a national multi-site study conducted locally by the Colorado School of Public Health that will look at the human health effects of PFAS exposure through drinking contaminated water. Much of the focus in El Paso County is on Fountain Valley, but the Air Force Academy on the city’s Northside also released PFAS chemicals, and residents of Woodmen Valley report health concerns as well, but they are not included in the agency’s exposure assessment. 

El Paso County is one of eight sites nationwide identified by the U.S. agency for tests to determine PFAS chemical levels. The sites, located in Alaska, Colorado, Delaware, Massachusetts, New York, Texas, Washington and West Virginia, are co-located with Air Force bases that used aqueous film forming foam, a type of chemical used to extinguish fuel fires and that contains PFAS chemicals.

Originally developed by chemical company DuPont in the 1950s, these “forever chemicals” are present in every living person’s body today, at least to some  to some extent. PFAS are commonly found in consumer products like Teflon or Scotchgard, and give the firefighting foam its “film forming” qualities. PFAS have a carbon-fluorine bond which makes them “very persistent” in the environment, according to Reh, allowing them to build in the environment in air, water and soil, and in plants, animals and people.

Raising Awareness

Since 2016, community activists have been working to raise awareness of this environmental threat, and Colorado legislators have recently passed laws to address PFAS contamination. While much of the blame — and legal consequences ­— for this massive and widespread contamination have been aimed at companies that produce PFAS chemicals, such as DuPont and 3M, the military has known of the potential dangers of these chemicals since at least 1989.

The Air Force Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory published a study titled “Biological Analysis of Three Ponds at Peterson AFB [Air Force Base], Colorado Springs CO” in November of that year that raised concerns about contamination coming from the installation. 

“Pond 3 cannot be recommended for stocking with fish in its current condition,” the report said. “Low species diversity suggests that this pond is being stressed by an unknown pollutant.” 

The report identifies a nearby storm drain as a “chronic source of pollutants for this pond.” While the Air Force analyzed a number of factors, it also identified the fire-fighting foam as a possible problem, noting that it “was accidentally spilled into pond 3 shortly before the first fish kill.”

Air Force officials say they responded quickly in 2016, when the PFOS was discovered in Fountain. 

 “When there is a potential our missions are having, or may have had, an adverse impact on communities, we take appropriate measures to protect it,” said Stephen Brady of the Peterson-Schriever Garrison Public Affairs office “When PFOS was discovered in the aquifer south of base, we immediately stopped using the legacy foam during fire response and training. We replaced the legacy foam in our fire response vehicles in November 2016 and in the hangar fire suppression systems in 2018 with a more environmentally responsible foam. Our first responders will only use the new environmentally responsible firefighting foam for emergency life-saving response, and do not discharge it during training.”

PFOS has long been a point of contention between people living near contamination spots and companies who produce it. Residents filed lawsuits against DuPont and 3M in the early 2000s, and both companies also faced increased scrutiny from the Environmental Protection Agency for their PFOS production, but it wasn’t until 2016 that the EPA formally issued a health advisory regarding the chemicals and set advisory levels of contamination at 70 parts per trillion (ppt).

“It’s an advisory, you really don’t have to do anything,” says Liz Rosenbaum, founder of the Fountain Valley Clean Water Coalition and Democratic candidate for Colorado House District 21. She started the grassroots effort in 2016 after news broke of contamination. 

“It kind of just happened,” she says. “You’re hyper-aware of things going on around you just because you’re running for an office. ‘What was PFAS?’ That was our first thing. We had a motto: ‘Turn your anger into action.’”

While Rosenbaum was organizing local residents to take action, the Colorado School of Public Health began to study exposure and health effects from PFAS chemicals with a study called, “PFAS Aware.” In 2018, the PFAS Aware team began sampling water in Fountain Valley. Initial results published in December 2018 showed that “total PFASs in untreated well water ranged from 18-2300 ppt” and that “PFASs detected are typical of fire-fighting foam-impacted groundwater.”

On Sept. 18, 2019, the Air Force Academy sent a notice to Woodmen Valley residents, signed by Col. Brian Hartless, the installation commander, warning them that “firefighting foam containing PFOS  and PFOA was used for firefighter training at the Academy from the 1970s until 1990, when we began to consolidate all of our training at Peterson Air Force Base. After that time, the equipment used to dispense the foam was periodically tested until approximately 2005.” 

Hartless said, “the foam now in use at the Academy is a more environmentally friendly formula that we began using in approximately 2017.” He told residents that the Air Force would begin sampling wells within the Woodmen Valley Fire Protection District.

Air Force Civil Engineer Center representatives “identified 37 private wells used for drinking water at homes closest in proximity to the southern base boundary for sampling. To date, 35 of the 37 wells have been sampled.”

Bill Beaudin, a Woodmen Valley resident since 1978, questions the Air Force’s testing process. 

“The north border of our property is the south border of the Academy,” he says. “We live on six acres. For many years until 1995 we all used well water. We were offered to go on city water at that time and most of us took that option. About 38 families chose not to go on city water for whatever reason.”

Longtime residents like Beaudin were concerned about the fact that the Air Force only tested the wells still in use. 

“The rest of us all drank that water and so did our children for all of those years in the ’70s, ’80s and early ’90s until we went on city water,” says Beaudin, “and yet the Air Force Academy chose to just do this select group.”

On March 24, the Air Force announced in a news release, “recent well water monitoring tests on the southeast perimeter of the U.S. Air Force Academy show Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) below the Environmental Protection Agency’s Lifetime Health Advisory level of 70 ppt.” 

But Rosenbaum says that doesn’t tell the whole story. 

”There’s 4,700 different types [of PFAS],” she says, “PFHxS is toxic firefighting foam, which may or may not have PFOA, which is Teflon, or PFAS, which is Scotchgard water-repellent. So when the Air Force Academy said ‘we’re below levels of PFOA and PFAS,’ all of us activists who have been doing this for four years were like, ‘duh.’ You don’t have a Teflon pan company. You don’t have a Scotchgard water-proofing company. You have toxic firefighting foam, so here, Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility did a FOIA [Freedom of Information Act request] to try to get the PFHxS levels, and they are really high.”

On March 12, the group reported that “The Air Force Academy test data of neighboring drinking water wells found levels of two individual PFAS chemicals, PFHxS and PFHpA, at more than 200 ppt in two locations” and “combined PFAS levels at a single well of 503.9 ppt and 537.8 ppt across two separate tests.”

Concerns continue

The consternation over the levels of PFAS chemicals in the water stems from concerns about the health effects of exposure to these chemicals. Heightened levels of PFAS chemicals have been linked to health problems such as increased cholesterol levels, changes in liver enzymes, decreased vaccine response in children and increased risk of kidney or testicular cancer, according to Rachel Rogers, an environmental health scientist with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

Beaudin believes it.

“A neighbor that was four houses away, her husband died of testicular cancer,” says Beaudin. “A neighbor who has since passed away died from both kidney and bladder cancer. They were longtime neighbors of ours.”

And Rosenbaum also worries about health concerns. 

“The main health issues here are kidney cancers, prostate cancer and a lot of autoimmune diseases,” she said.

A 2006 University of Cincinnati study found that firefighters, who are more likely to be directly exposed to PFAS chemicals, “are twice as likely to develop testicular cancer and have significantly higher rates of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and prostate cancer than non-firefighters. The researchers also confirmed previous findings that firefighters are at greater risk for multiple myeloma.”

On March 6, 2019, former Colorado Springs resident Mark Favors testified before the House Committee on Oversight and Reform subcommittee on the environment regarding the impact PFAS contamination has had on his family. 

“In my family, we’ve had 16 aunts, uncles, or cousins diagnosed with cancer who had all resided in the contaminated areas for at least 10 years,” said Favors, “unknowingly using tap water contaminated with PFAS that was eventually found to have toxic levels exceeding the EPA’s non-enforceable ‘safe’ limit.”

Many Coloradans suffering from medical issues relating to PFAS exposure, however, may be unable to seek legal compensation. 

“If you are contaminated, you need to sue within two years,” says Rosenbaum. “If you knew you were contaminated in 2016, and now it’s 2020, you should have joined a lawsuit or done whatever. If you have an autoimmune disease it takes four or five years to figure out what type you have. If you’re in a car accident you have up to three years to sue somebody, so we need to change the statute of limitations for litigation.”

Lawmakers in Colorado addressed problems with PFAS contamination during the 2019 legislative session. Tony Exum, D-House District 18; Lois Landgraf, R-House District 21; Pete Lee, D-Senate District 11; and Dennis Hisey, R-Senate District 2, sponsored House Bill 1279, which bans the use of fire-fighting foams that use PFAS chemicals for testing or training purposes. In 2020 the same group of legislators sponsored House Bill 1119, which further regulates the use of PFAS chemicals.

On July 10, the city of Colorado Springs and Colorado Springs Utilities, along with the cities of Aurora, Greeley, Fountain and a number of water districts filed a motion to vacate an administrative action hearing by the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission regarding a proposed new policy to address PFAS contamination, referred to as policy 20-1. 

“The Joint Parties recognize the importance of assuring that drinking water supplies are not contaminated by PFAS, and that water supplies contaminated by PFAS are cleaned up,” the motion said. “Vacating the administrative action hearing will not preclude the cleanup of PFAS; it will require that regulatory measures imposed by the Water Quality Control Division are properly authorized through a rulemaking hearing.”

On July 14 the water control division adopted policy 20-1. 

“What this policy does,” said Rosenbaum, “is it forces wastewater to test for PFAS. Your drinking water is fine; it’s not contaminated yet, but do you have an industry that’s dumping everything into the wastewater? We have the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, so they’re not dumping in rivers anymore but they’re dumping into wastewater. Now we’re making that accountable in our state. Now we’re explicitly stating in writing CDPHE [Colorado Department of Health and Environment] will receive extra funding to help that water district do an investigation of the industries that are connected to the wastewater system to see if they have PFAS. If they do, now they have to filter it at their site. If you own a restaurant, you have a grease trap. You can’t just dump in the wastewater. If you have a dental office, it’s explicitly written that they have to filter mercury. We’re not doing anything different, we’re just directly applying it where they’ve gotten away with no rules because they’ve been allowed to self-regulate.”

Heidi Beedle is a former soldier, educator, activist, and animal welfare worker. She received a Bachelor’s in English from UCCS. She has worked as a freelance writer covering LGBTQ issues, nuclear disasters, cattle mutilations, and social movements.